Electrical power generation is a just in time product. Over-production is either wasted or can be saved with help of different technologies.
During the South African riots it happened that the Samsung distribution centre in Cato Ridge (province KwaZulu-Natal) was robbed on July 11, 2021.
Following the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, Germany has permanently shut down eight of its 17 reactors and pledged to close the rest by the end of 2022. Actual still six reactors are operating.
The IEC 62052-11 has a tiny little detail about the power consumption in the current circuit.
Energy meters with prepayment function are mainly working with the Standard Transfer Specification (STS). There are still some manufacturer specific proprietary solutions in the market.
Power consumption is part of the technical losses. The utilities are bearing these costs. The end-user is not charged.
For a real time clock (RTC) CLOU energy meters are operating with an external quartz crystal with a frequency of 32.768 kHz.
PLC enables sending data over existing power cables. With just power cables connected to the energy meter, it is possible to read and execute commands.
The sample quantity is internationally not fixed, most countries are taking a random 4 % sample, while for example Germany sticks on testing 20 %.
Maintaining the right cross-section avoids overheating and is also reducing the internal resistance.