Technical losses are coming from current flowing in electrical installations. They can not be avoided, but reduced by proper installation. Technical losses can be calculated.
- Losses due to conductor resistance
- Losses due to induction of electromagnetic fields
- Dielectric losses due to insulation material between the conductors
- Losses due to harmonic distortion
- Losses due to poor earthing
Non-technical losses are more difficult to reduce.
- Meter tampering
- Hooking or bypassing the meter
- Wrong programmed instrument transformer ratios in the meter
- Burden for instrument transformers too high
- Wrong meter readings
- Meter is faulty or out of accuracy class
- Unpaid electricity bills
Non-technical losses are more difficult to reduce. For the technical debugging on-site test equipment can solve many cases. For customer which don't pay their bills, prepayment meters can be installed.