Technical losses are coming from current flowing in electrical installations. They can not be avoided, but reduced by proper installation. Technical losses can be calculated.
- Losses due to conductor resistance
- Losses due to induction of electromagnetic fields
- Dielectric losses due to insulation material between the conductors
- Losses due to harmonic distortion
- Losses due to poor earthing
Non-technical losses are more difficult to reduce.
- Meter tampering
- Hooking or bypassing the meter
- Wrong programmed instrument transformer ratios in the meter
- Burden for instrument transformers too high
- Wrong meter readings
- Meter is faulty or out of accuracy class
- Unpaid electricity bills
Non-technical losses are more difficult to reduce. For the technical debugging on-site test equipment can solve many cases. For customer which don’t pay their bills, prepayment meters can be installed. AMI systems can evaluate the efficiency of distribution transformers and can identify regions with hooking.