R&D Needs for a Decarbonized Future:
Paving the Way to Net-Zero Emissions

In the pursuit of a sustainable and decarbonized future, achieving mid-century net-zero emissions goals is at the forefront of global efforts. While renewable energy and electrification have made significant progress, certain sectors present unique challenges that demand solutions at the frontier of science and technology. In this article, we examine the critical research and development needs for a decarbonized future, focusing on long-duration energy storage, low-carbon industrial processes, and direct air capture at gigatons scales.

Long Duration Energy Storage: Overcoming the Limitations

Renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, are intermittent in nature, highlighting the importance of efficient and reliable energy storage solutions. While lithium-ion batteries have gained prominence, they are limited in their multi-day discharge potential. Addressing this challenge, R&D efforts are focusing on adapting underground compressed air and thermal energy storage for grid-scale applications. Promising concepts, including subsurface caverns, synthetic rock formations, and molten salt batteries, offer potential solutions. However, the key to widespread commercial viability lies in lowering costs and optimizing the performance of these innovative technologies.

Low-Carbon Industrial Processes: Revolutionizing Key Sectors

Certain industries, such as cement production and steelmaking, contribute significantly to global emissions. To combat this, R&D endeavours are exploring groundbreaking alternatives. Cement production, responsible for over 8% of global emissions, can benefit from substituting clinker with alkaline activators or carbonating waste materials. Similarly, steelmaking is undergoing reformulations to replace coking coal with green hydrogen, a zero-emission alternative. Looking further ahead, the development of sustainable synthetic bio-based or non-biological materials holds promise for reducing the environmental impact of high-impact plastics and fibres.

Direct Air Capture at Gigatonne Scales: Removing Carbon from the Atmosphere

As the urgency to reduce carbon emissions intensifies, direct air capture (DAC) plays a vital role. DAC technologies aim to capture carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere, offering a pathway to achieve negative emissions. Pilot plants have demonstrated the feasibility of capturing and storing 1,000 tons annually, albeit at a much smaller scale than the gigatonne levels required for significant impact. R&D efforts are now focused on addressing engineering challenges, such as massively parallelizing and automating capture units to reduce costs to less than $100 per ton. Additionally, exploring viable approaches to mineralization or utilization of captured carbon could unlock new revenue streams and expedite commercialization.


The transition towards a decarbonized future necessitates substantial investment in research and development to overcome the challenges faced by harder-to-abate sectors. Long-duration energy storage, low-carbon industrial processes, and direct air capture at gigatonne scales are key areas that demand innovative solutions.
At CLOU, we are committed to developing and providing state-of-the-art energy storage solutions that contribute to a decarbonized future. If you have any inquiries or need further information about our energy storage systems, please do not hesitate to reach out to us. We are here to assist you and welcome your valuable thoughts and comments.

Until then, keep reducing those carbon emissions and shining like a renewable energy superstar!

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